PEDAGOGICAL SYSTEM: FUNDAMENTALS
According to the definition offered by most renowned encyclopedias and scientists, the pedagogical system represents a set of interlocking components, which have a common purpose – education and training of children and adults. The online education systems, like mis webmail maid world very easy
In short, it is a set of elements that allow some to receive instruction and others – to impart it. With the passage of time the educational systems were modified, but their goal was always the same – preparation and adaptation to the conditions of life. A curious fact: receive instruction can all living beings that have the nervous system. But man, thanks to his ability to use the “secondary signaling system” or, speaking in Christian, the language, was ahead of other species in this race.
HOW IT ALL STARTED
The key moment was the 7th century BC. In that period, humanity went from hunting and gathering to livestock and agriculture. The man began to assimilate the artisan trades: carving stones, creating new tools, making crockery and cloth. All of this was impossible without special knowledge, and hence the need to learn arose.
First educational institutions for children appeared in the 3rd century BC on the Arabian peninsula – Egypt and Mesopotamia. The term “school” (from the ancient Greek “place of leisure, rest” – And do today’s students share this opinion?) Arose much later.
ANCIENT WORLD AND MIDDLE AGES
In the Ancient World, there are two educational systems: ancient oriental and classical Greek. The former was used in Egypt, the Middle East, India, and China. In those days the educational process focused on learning writing and history.
The classical Greek system that was used in ancient Greece and Rome, is divided into three subsystems: Spartan, Roman and Athenian education. Each of them had its peculiarities.
Thus, the Spartan educational system focused on the physical education and military instruction of men devoted to their state. Unlike this, Roman education had a completely civic character. In the students they instilled the willingness to sacrifice for the good their status, contempt for slaves and the idea of perfection of the Roman political regime. At the same time, Athenian education focused on the harmonious development of personality: students learned to sing, dance, count, read, acquire oratory skills and exercise the body.
With the fall of the Roman Empire and the spread of Christianity, educational doctrines are modified. The Middle Ages began (V-XVII centuries). The educational process in these times was in charge of the Church. The main goal of teaching was the salvation of the soul, the main source of knowledge – divine breath. The culture was permeated with religious ideas, which undoubtedly determined the educational traditions of that time.
In the IX-XI centuries on the border between Europe and Asia a new state arises – Kievan Rus. The demand for men capable of speaking other languages, promoting trade, keeping accounts, and writing laws were very high. To organize all the knowledge, two missionaries from the Byzantine Empire – Saints Cyril and Methodius – composed the Glagolitic alphabet, derived from the Greek alphabet with elements from the Coptic and Hebrew alphabets.
Such changes in the political situation fostered the development of schools. For example, Prince Vladimir the Great invited the sons of nobles and clergymen to learn “bookish knowledge” that included the teaching of writing, science, and the like.
However, the most prominent figure of that time was Prince Yaroslav I the Wise. In the year 1037 in the Cathedral of Saint Sophia in Kiev he founded the library in which up to now thousands of books are preserved. The students of this educational center, which was well known even abroad, studied 17 different disciplines.
Classes in Kievan Rus’ schools were held in the Old Slavic language, which was spoken by the population at the time. In turn, in Western European schools at that time Latin was used, which ordinary people did not understand.
RENAISSANCE AGE HUMANISM
In the Renaissance Era (XIV-XVI centuries) education was based on the ideas of humanism with a focus on the human being. At that time in the schools, they tried to form a harmoniously developed and free person, capable of positively influencing society. In addition to physical development, intellectual qualities were stimulated. Students studied ancient languages, literature, and natural science.
For the first time, teachers try to diversify the educational process and vary it with play. This is done in order to interest the child and show him how the acquired knowledge can be applied in real life.
The concept of Jesuit education, which is based on the ideas of ambition and competition among students, also gains popularity. In these conditions, the diligent students had all the respect of their class, regardless of their economic conditions and social positions.
UKRAINIAN BROTHERHOOD SCHOOLS
At the end of the 16th century – the beginning of the 17th century, the Brotherhood Schools were founded in Ukraine. Later, based on them, public schools of general education (primary and secondary), professional associations and higher education entities were formed.
These educational institutions were open to people of all strata. Students from 6 to 12 years old were admitted, and the monthly payment that their parents had to pay depended on their financial capacity. In the case of absolute insolvency, students were often admitted free of charge.
The first such school was founded in the city of Lviv in 1586. In 1615 the first Brotherhood School emerged in Kiev. Later this school merged with the school of the Kiev Cave Monastery, founded by Petro Mohyla. Thus appeared the Ecclesiastical Academy of Kiev – an important educational center that exists until now.
In this academy the Jesuit doctrine dominated. In addition, in order to evaluate the knowledge obtained during the week, every Saturday the students participated in the debates. Among those invited to participate were frequently the most notable characters of this era and Hetman himself!
The period under the name of Modern Age covers the 17th-18th centuries. During this time, science, culture, economics, and commerce developed, and the old educational process, designed to train clergymen and clerks, no longer met new demands.
Pedagogical principles undergo drastic changes. In the middle of the 17th century, a Czech pedagogue – Juan Amos Comenius – offered a new teaching methodology, called didactics. His ideas he expresses in the work «Didactica Magna». As a basis, the system of classes and lessons is taken, which comprises a fixed time of lessons and a stable circle of students (class and lesson).
In his work, Comenius explains the need for demonstrative lessons and describes the basic principles of the pedagogical educational process. Giving great importance precisely to education, which must be based on the school-family alliance.
Another scientist who made a great contribution to the development of pedagogy in the 18th century was the illustrator (and at the same time a writer, pedagogue, philosopher, musician, botanist, and naturalist) Jean-Jacques Rousseau. He fostered ideas of humanism and focused on the natural evolution of the child. According to Rousseau, education and instruction should be based on the interests and needs of the child himself. The scientist denied the ideas of authoritarianism in education. Respect for the child, his freedom and comfort – these are the main concepts of his pedagogical doctrine.
The industrial epoch (mid-18th century-early 19th century) was the time of active mechanization of production. For this reason, competent people, who knew how to carry out the tasks assigned in an organized manner, had priority.
A novelty in the development of the educational system were the public schools, which emerged in Western Europe. What is now an indispensable and compulsory thing – free basic education – first appeared in Germany and spread to France and the United States. Although only the basic disciplines were taught in schools, this was enough to meet the demands of the time.
The Lancaster class and lesson system and monitoring method are universally introduced. The latter provides that older students teach younger students under the supervision of teachers.
The educational process begins to be formalized. Educational plans, assessment and examination systems, teaching documents (certificates, newsletters, notebooks, etc.) are unified. Simultaneously, the number of subjects in basic school grows. In addition to writing, reading, and arithmetic, children begin to study science, geography, history, physics, and learn trades.
Mass schooling signified a new stage in the development of pedagogical thinking. Its purpose was to impart instruction to all people regardless of their social conditions.